Specific allergen tests (Immuno-CAP) can be found in different allergen lists. You can search for specific allergens in the lists sorted in alphabetical order or according to the groups of substances. Besides, you can find lists with different multipanels, the allergens for detection of specific IgG antibodies and for cellular allergy tests (FlowCAST).
The measurement of IgE-specific antibodies is at the core of allergy diagnostics. The detection of this kind of antibodies indicates allergic sensitisation; the clinical term of an allergy needs to be differentiated from that. The group of outdoor air allergens is dominated by pollen subdivided into early-, summer- and late-flowering plants. House dust mites and pets are among the most notable indoor allergens, whereas hen's eggs and cow's milk are in the centre of attention in foodstuffs. Furthermore, e.g., latex (as an occupational allergen) and insecticide allergens (hymenoptera venom) are worthwhile mentioning.
The detection of IgG-specific antibodies plays a subordinate role in allergy diagnostics. These are of importance, for instance, to the diagnostics of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (e.g., farmer's lung, bird fancier's lung).
The assessment of the measured values found for the IgE antibodies is performed according to the following CAP classes:
Most allergies today can be detected with screening panels, namely an inhalation screening SX1 and a food screening fx5. As a rule, an additional analysis of the total IgE is recommended.
Further profiles (symptom profiles) are introduced, e.g.
If the screening yielded a positive result, individual allergen clarification is recommended.
These kinds of screening examinations are possible on such a large scale, because there are various cross-reactions of IgE antibodies - not only with allergens from the sources with a high degree of relatedness, but also from sources of merely low phylogenetic relationship. This is caused by certain structures of regulatory proteins. Cross-reactions exist between, e.g., birch and apple, which means that, in the case of a positive or negative test result, the statement applies to both allergens.
Another diagnostic approach is to define the profiles of the most significant allergens for frequent clinical pictures, and to use these as so-called „symptom profiles“. The most important ones in the differential diagnosis of the most frequent symptoms in general and paediatric practice are
Allergen extracts are used in the above-described detection of specific IgE antibodies. These contain the natural combination of proteins from the respective allergen source. In contrast to this, molecular allergy diagnostics or the component-based method (Component-Resolved Diagnostics, CRD) make use of recombinantly produced proteins (molecular allergens). Due to this, specific IgE antibodies are detected against a certain molecule. This way, causative primary sensitisation can be identified. This information makes it possible to
Guidelines and consensus recommendations advise that these diagnostics be used to decide on a specific immunotherapy (SIT).